Bolivia, Charles II Cob 2 Reales 1683 P-V AU53 NGC, Potosi mint, KM24. PCGS Population [1/0], total of 2 graded by NGC. Some flatness as typical for a cob of this period, devices are sharp with minimal wear. Carlos ; 6 November 1661 1 November 1700, also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched , was the last Habsburg.
Ruler of the Spanish Empire. He is now best remembered for his physical disabilities, believed to be the result of inbreeding. And the war for his throne that followed his death.
He died childless in 1700 with no immediate Habsburg heir. His will named his successor as 16-year-old Philip of Anjou. And Charles's half-sister Maria Theresa. Disputes over Philip's inheritance led to the War of the Spanish Succession.
Charles was born in Madrid. To Philip IV of Spain.
And his second wife, Mariana of Austria. The only surviving son of his father's two marriages, he was given the title Prince of Asturias. Traditionally held by the heir to the Spanish throne.
Philip and Mariana were uncle and niece, making their son their great-nephew and first-cousin respectively; all eight of his great-grandparents were descendants of Joanna. And Philip I of Castile. The impact of this inbreeding. Is not fully understood, while his elder sister Margaret Theresa.
Did not appear to have the same issues. Charles has been the subject of various studies on the impact of inbreeding, which have suggested he may have had the endocrine disease acromegaly. And a combination of rare genetic disorders often transmitted through recessive genes. Including combined pituitary hormone deficiency.And distal renal tubular acidosis. However, another study states that evidence supporting inbreeding as an important factor in the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg lineage [is] not conclusive; it has not been demonstrated disabilities suffered by Charles II were caused by detrimental recessive alleles inherited from common ancestors.
Regardless of their cause, Charles suffered ill-health throughout his life and has been described as short, lame, epileptic, senile and completely bald before 35, always on the verge of death but repeatedly baffling Christendom by continuing to live. In his case, the so-called Habsburg lip. Was so pronounced he spoke and ate only with difficulty, did not learn to talk until the age of four or walk until eight.
However, foreign observers such as the Marquess of Torcy. Noted his mental capacities remained intact. Background; the decline of Spanish power. When Charles became King in 1665, the Spanish Empire.
Or'Monarchy' remained an enormous global confederation in terms of territory, but decades of war drained resources and ended Spain's supremacy in Europe. The 15681648 Eighty Years' War.With the Dutch, the 16351659 Franco-Spanish War. And other conflicts devastated finances, while Spain was forced to accept an independent Dutch Republic. The Kingdom of Spain comprised the two Crowns of Castile.
Each with very different political cultures and traditions. Spain declared bankruptcy nine times between 1557 and 1666, including 1647, 1652, 1661 and 1666. However, the 17th century was a period of crisis for many European states and Spain was not alone in facing these problems.
Feuds between those who ruled in Charles' name did little to help but it is debatable how far they or he can be held responsible for long-term trends predating his reign; the Monarchy proved remarkably resilient and when Charles died was largely intact. Mariana of Austria by Diego Velázquez. 1656; she acted as Regent for much of Charles' reign. Charles was three years old when his father, Philip IV, died on 17 September 1665; as he was a legal minor, his mother Mariana was appointed Queen Regent by the Council of Castile. While Charles theoretically ruled in his own name after her death in 1696, in reality his frequent ill-health meant power was often exercised by others.
This resulted in bitter internal struggles for control of government, the long feud between his mother and illegitimate half-brother John of Austria the Younger. Charles' father Philip had established the system of employing personal favourites.
Or " validos " when he appointed the Count-Duke of Olivares. Mariana simply followed this precedent, the difference being that as they had been put in office by a woman, they were more visible. The first was her personal confessor, Juan Everardo Nithard. Who was appointed Grand Inquisitor. In 1666, placing him on the Regency Council.
On Charles' accession, his administration had to end the long-running Portuguese Restoration War. And settle the War of Devolution.
The Spanish Crown declared bankruptcy in 1662 and 1666 and reducing Spain's military commitments was a matter of extreme urgency. In 1668, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Ended the war with France and the Treaty of Lisbon. Accepted the restoration of the Crown of Portugal.
And loss of the Portuguese Empire. These were simply an acceptance of reality while Aix-La-Chapelle was in many ways a diplomatic triumph, since France was forced to return most of its territorial gains. However, John exploited discontent within the ruling class to instigate a revolt in Aragon and Catalonia, compelling Mariana to dismiss Nithard in February 1669.Nithard was replaced by Fernando de Valenzuela. When Charles turned 14 in 1675, he was legally able to rule on his own. This would have resulted in the end of the Regency while John used the opportunity to dismiss the valido. Marie Louise, Charles' French first Queen.
The outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War. In 1672 dragged Spain into another war with France over the Spanish Netherlands, the cost of which placed almost intolerable strain on the economy. In January 1678, John finally took charge of government, expelled Mariana and exiled Valenzuela.Ironically, given his earlier opposition to the concessions made in 1668, his first act was to end the war; under the terms of the Treaties of Nijmegen. Having spent so many years achieving power, John's administration failed to live up to expectations, one of its few achievements being stabilising the currency. He faced an almost impossible situation and had insufficient time to have a real impact before his government ended with his death in September 1679. To whom he was devoted.
The 1683-84 War of the Reunions. Was a brief but devastating conflict with France over the Spanish Netherlands, followed in 1688 by the outbreak of the Nine Years' War.Shortly afterwards in February 1689, Marie Louise died; despite allegations she was poisoned, based on the description of her symptoms, modern doctors believe her illness was almost certainly appendicitis. In August, Charles married Maria Anna of Neuburg. By proxy, the formal wedding taking place in May 1690; after his mother died on 16 May 1696, he ruled in his own name although Maria Anna played a significant role due to his ill-health and her control over access to Charles. It was clear Charles' health was finally failing and agreeing upon his successor became increasingly urgent.
The Nine Years' War showed France could not achieve its objectives on its own; the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick. Was the result of mutual exhaustion and Louis' search for allies in anticipation of a contest over the Spanish throne. The Habsburg Emperor Leopold initially refused to sign the Treaty since it left this issue unresolved; he reluctantly did so in October 1697 but all sides viewed it as simply a pause in hostilities. Main article: Maria Anna of Neuburg.
One of John's last acts was to arrange Charles' marriage in 1679 to Marie Louise of Orléans. Eldest daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans. The French ambassador wrote that'... The Catholic King is so ugly as to cause fear and he looks ill' while the marriage was strongly resisted by the prospective bride but went ahead regardless.Marie Louise claimed Charles suffered from premature ejaculation; the lack of an heir made her unpopular, fertility treatments gave her severe intestinal problems and she became depressed. The pressure to produce an heir is illustrated by the story that when an astrologer suggested Charles' sterility was due to his failure to say goodbye to his father, Mariana had Philip IV's body disinterred to allow him to do so.
Charles was distraught when Marie Louise died in February 1689 but his declining health meant in August he married Maria Anna of Neuburg. Daughter of Philip William, Elector Palatine. And sister-in-law to the Emperor Leopold. As one of 12 children, she was selected for her family background of fertility but also to strengthen the pro-Austrian faction in the Spanish court; when Mariana herself died in 1696, she assumed leadership of this element. The marriage was no more successful in producing an heir; after his death, Charles' autopsy revealed he had only one atrophied.
Testicle and he was almost certainly impotent by this stage. As the Crown of Spain passed according to cognatic primogeniture. It was possible for a woman, or the descendant of a woman, to inherit the crown.
This enabled Charles' sisters Maria Theresa (16381683). To pass their rights to the children of their marriages with Louis XIV and Emperor Leopold.In 1685, Leopold and Margaret's daughter Maria Antonia. Married Max Emanuel of Bavaria. She died in 1692, leaving one surviving son, Joseph Ferdinand. In October 1698, France, Britain and the Dutch Republic attempted to impose a diplomatic solution to the Succession on Spain and Austria, by the Treaty of the Hague.
This made Joseph Ferdinand heir to the bulk of the Spanish Monarchy, with France gaining the Kingdoms of Naples. And other concessions in Italy plus the modern Basque province of Gipuzkoa. Leopold's younger son Archduke Charles. Became ruler of the Duchy of Milan. A possession considered vital to the security of Austria's southern border.Unsurprisingly, the Spanish objected to their Empire being divided by foreign powers without consultation, and on 14 November 1698, Charles II published his will. This made six year old Joseph Ferdinand heir to an independent and undivided Spanish Monarchy, with Maria Anna as Queen Regent during his minority, an announcement allegedly received by the Spanish councillors in silence. Joseph Ferdinand died of smallpox in 1699, leaving Louis XIV's eldest son, the Grand Dauphin. As the senior surviving legitimate descendant of Philip IV; since this would lead to the union of Spain and France, an alternative was needed.
In March 1700, France, Britain and the Dutch agreed to the Second Partition Treaty or Treaty of London. Archduke Charles replaced Joseph Ferdinand as heir, with Spanish possessions in Europe split between France, Savoy. Charles altered his will in favour of Archduke Charles, once again stipulating an undivided and independent Spanish Monarchy. However, much of the nobility, including Charles, disliked the Austrians and saw genuine advantages for Spain in a Bourbon candidate. In September 1700, Charles became ill again; by 28 September he was no longer able to eat and Portocarrero persuaded him to alter his will in favour of Louis XIV's grandson, Philip of Anjou.When Charles died on 1 November 1700, the throne was offered to Philip, who was proclaimed King of Spain on 16 November 1700. This was accepted by Britain and the Dutch Republic among others but disputes over division of territories and commercial rights led to the War of the Spanish Succession. The item "Bolivia Cob 1683 P-V 2 Reales NGC AU53 Charles II Potosi Mint Scarce" is in sale since Friday, March 8, 2019.
This item is in the category "Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ World\South America\Bolivia". The seller is "appreciatingobjects" and is located in Hampton, New Hampshire. This item can be shipped worldwide.